Chapter 3 Notes


Cell=smallest piece can be alive

A.           Cells & Cell Theory

Robert Hooke made microscope & named cells(little rooms)

1.  Finding  Cells in Other Organisms

Anton van Leeuwenhoek-made microscope & found protists & bacteria

2.  Cell Theory

Matthias Schleiden-all plants made of cells

Theodore Schwann-all animals made of cells

(1)        All organisms made of cells

(2)        Cell basic unit of life

Rudolf Virchow

(3)        Cells from other cells

B.            Cell Size

Most cells tiny

 1.  Few Large Cells

Egg cells can be large

2.  Many Small Cells

Cells small so can get food & waste in and out fast enough

Larger the cell, smaller surface area-to-volume ratio

C.            Parts  of a Cell

All cells have

1.  Cell Membrane & Cytoplasm

Cell membrane-covers and protects cell                         Controls in/out

 ·      Cytoplasm-fluid(goo) in cell

2.  Organelles

Like little organs-perform specific job for cell

3.  Genetic Material

DNA-carries info for new cells & functions

In some cells, DNA in nucleus(human blood cells lose DNA)

Bacteria have no nucleus

D.           Two Types of Cells

Prokaryotic-no nucleus

Eukaryotic-with nucleus

E.Prokaryotes:Eubacteria & Archaebacteria

1.  Eubacteria-common bacteria

Are everywhere, have loose DNA, no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles, hard cell wall

 2.  Archaebacteria

Not common-are like Eubacteria but different in cell wall & ribosomes

Live in extreme places-heat-loving, salt-loving, and methane making

F. Eukaryotic Cells & Eukaryotes

Larger, have bound nucleus that holds DNA, bound organelles

Many are multicellular

II  Eukaryotic Cells

A.    Cell Wall=rigid, surrounds & supports cell

All plant cell walls made of cellulose

Fungi & bacteria-walls made of chitin and other things

Animal cell doesn’t have cell wall

 B.     Cell Membrane

Protects & encloses all cells-made of lipids

Controls in/out

 C.     Cytoskeleton=web of proteins in cytoplasm

Helps cell move & gives support



D.     Nucleus=controls all of cells activities

Contains DNA=info to make proteins

Proteins control chemical processes

Nucleus in all Eukaryotic cells

Nucleolus=makes ribosomes

E.      Ribosomes=make protein/protein synthesis

F.     Endoplasmic Reticulum=ER

Folded membranes are internal delivery system of cell


Rough ER-with ribosomes   smooth ER-without ribosomes

G.     Mitochondria=power source of cell

Release ATP(energy in usable form)

 H.      Chloroplasts

In plants & algae, photosynthesis takes place there

I  Golgi complex

Makes & packages proteins & sends to other parts of the cell

J.        Cell Compartments

Vesicles-from Golgi complex, contain materials to move thru cell

K.     Cellular Digestion

Lysosome=produces digestive enzymes, destroy worn-out/damaged organelles, protect

Mainly in animal cells


1.       Vacuoles=large vesicles, store water, digestive enzymes & other things

III The Organization of Living Things

A.      The Benefits of Being Multicellular

·         Larger size

·         Longer life

·         Specialization

B.       Cells Working Together


Muscle, nerve, connective, protective

C.      Tissues Working Together

Tissues-> organs

Heart, lung, leaf,

1.Organs Working Together

                 Organs-> systems

D.     Organisms



E.      Structure and Function

Ex. alveoli



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